Definitions of Culture
_Hofstede (1994: 5): Culture is “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.”
Bowers (1992): "Culture is an inherited wealth in which we share memories, metaphors, maxims and myths."
Alptekin (1993: 136) culture consists of more than “civilization”, our socially acquired knowledge is "organized in culture-specific ways which normally frame our perception of reality such that we largely define the world through the filter of our world view."
Claire Kramsch (1998: 10): culture is a world view, a "common system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, and acting."
source: Lázár, Ildikó (ed.) (2007). Developing and assessing intercultural communicative competence: A guide for language teachers and teacher educators. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, p. 7ff.
_ Byram's model of ICC
_ According to Michael Byram (1997) the learners need to have a good command of the foreign language in order to become an intercultural speaker, i.e. they have to develop linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence and discourse competence. But in order to be able to communicate effectively and appropriately in intercultural communicative situations learners need to develop intercultural competence (IC), too.
Intercultural competence (IC) is part of ICC (in addition to the above mentioned linguistic, sociolinguistic and discourse comptence) and involves five more competences which are called savoirs. These competences involve the attitudes (attitudinal profile), knowledge, the skills of interpreting and relating, the skills of discovery and interaction as well as a critical cultural awareness.
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Bennet)
Ethnozentrische Phasen, Ethnocentric Phases
How can ICC be developed in the foreign language classroom?
Customer: You already know me, I'm not willing to answer that question anymore. I'm just looking for a pair of jeans.
How could ICC be assessed?