What students should know:
_Students need to know (Haß 2006: 128f.):
How to teach Grammar
_ Richards, Jack C. / Schmidt, Richard (2002). Longman Dictionary of Language teaching & Applied Linguistics. Third Edition. Harlow: Longman, p. 146. The underlined approach is the one favoured nowadays.
inductive / inductive learning
Characteristics of communicative grammar exercises:
_according to Werner Kieweg’s article (Kommunikative Grammatik-übungen)
Read through the following statements and decide which of them sounds more like the traditional approach (TA) to grammar and which more like a communicative approach (CA).
a) Focus on the form of language form TA
b) Focus on the function of language CA
c) Focus on fluency and communication CA
d) Focus on accuracy TA/CA
e) Uses text as unit of meaning CA
f) Uses words and sentences as unit of meaning TA
g) Uses constructed examples as a basis
for work in the classroom TA
h) Uses communicative context as a basis
for work in the classroom CA
Communicative Grammar Activities / Exercises:
Grammar games / activities
Grammatik vermitteln (Haß 2006: 137)
_ Nach Frank Haß (2006: 131f.):
fallspezifische Entscheidung: Bewusstmachung einer Regel oder Behandlung als lexikalisches Phänomen
_Ziegésar, Detlef und Margaret (1995): Erwerbsorientierter Grammatikunterricht
_ According to Ziegésar, Detlef und Margaret (1995). Einführung von Grammatik im Englischunterricht: Materialien und Modelle. München: Oldenbourg.
Acquisition-oriented teaching of grammar according to Ziegésar (Erwerbsorientierter Grammatikunterricht)
The grammatical structure is introduced or demonstrated in a teacher talk. The context and the situation should be well chosen – it should be interesting, vivid and clear to the students. The new grammatical structure is embedded in a meaningful context and is used 10 to 15 times, e. g. working with the overhead transparency with pictures talking about what the people have been doing.
2. Comprehending / Understanding and Reaction
By listening to the story or the demonstration by the teacher the learners understand the new structure. They prove their understanding by reacting verbally but they do not use the new structure in this step, e. g. T: This person has been doing homework since 3 o’clock. Who is it? S: Anna. T: That’s right. …
3. Re-production, 1st use of grammar item
In this step the learners use the new grammatical structure or new grammar item for the first time. In a teacher-guided talk the learners are asked to re-produce the new structure and should only change parts of the sentence as for example certain words, e. g. the teacher offers true/false statements and the learners have to decide whether it’s true or false, in case it is false they should correct the statement. T: Listen carefully, is this right or wrong? Peter has been painting since three o’clock. S: It’s wrong. He’s been painting since half past three.
Learners use the new structure mainly in group or pair work. The tasks should be communicative situations. In the example the learners are asked to describe the pictures on the overhead transparency without any help by the teacher, only some kind of scaffold could be provided. T: Let’s see how much you’ve learned today. What can you say about all these people?
Other more communicative ideas could be:
Students walk around and ask each other questions which are provided: How long have you been learning English, French …? How long have you been playing football / the piano? After that they have to write some sentences about their classmates, e. g. Michael has been learning English for … years. Max has been playing football since 1987.
5. Clarification, raising language awareness
Rules, form and function/meaning of the new grammar item are worked out or elicited inductively.
Grammatik unterrichten: Übersicht 3 Modelle