Planning a Lesson
Common Approaches / Methods
Sequences / Unterrichtsphasen
Presentation: the teacher introduces a situation which contextualises the language to be taught. For example, the teacher asks the pupils what typical public signs they would see at an airport. They are asked to interpret their meaning, e.g. Please do not smoke, Please switch off your mobile etc.
Practice: With the help of the teacher, the pupils now practise the language that is presented (imperative forms) using accurate reproduction techniques such as choral repetition, individual repetition or cue-response drills. After a certain amount of oral practice, the pupils might practice the same forms in writing.
Production: Here the pupils are asked to use the new language in sentences of their own. For example, the students might be asked to come up with further suggestions for well-known public signs or come up with new ideas for their own.
Engage: Students should be emotionally engaged with what is going on. So motivation is very important, meet the students interests.
Study: describes any teaching and learning element where the focus is on how something is constructed, e. g. a relative clause, the construction of a paragraph. The focus is on the form and the students’ attention is drawn to it either by the teacher or through their own noticing activities.
Activate: Activate means any stage at which students are encouraged to use all and/or any of the language they know. Students activate the new language (and the language they already know) by using it in sentences of their own. Different versions are possible.
Hypothesize: the pupils are then encouraged to hypothesize about how this particular language structure works. What is its form? What is its function?
Experiment: The pupils then have the opportunity to experiment with their ideas to see if they are right: is the form correctly defined? Have they understood its function? If they haven’t found all the right answers, they can go back to the hypothesis stage again.
Pre-stage: Students are prepared for reading or listening by getting them interested in a topic, discussing what words may come up, learning a few key words for later. For example, the teacher might ask their opinion about pocket money if the text deals with this particular topic. Alternatively, if there is a picture accompanying a text, the pupils might be asked to predict what they think is going to happen in the story.
In-stage: Pupils listen or read the text a number of times. Each time a specific task is given which is designed to focus the attention of the pupils and help them understand the text better.
Post-stage: Here evaluation takes place of the work done during the in-stage tasks. There may also be a discussion of the topic dealt with in the text and discussion or practice of the language encountered.
Teach: An attempt to teach the learner some of the things he/she cannot yet do or haven’t fully understood yet (CLARIFICATION). This provides the pupils with an opportunity to notice something they have not yet noticed before. If, for example, they still confuse aspects of the present perfect with past simple, then you need to work more carefully on the distinction here.
Test: Check to see if learning has actually taken place. Has an improvement taken place as a result of teaching? Have they a clearer understanding of when they should use the present perfect and when the past simple?
The sequences from above do NOT have to be used in the exact order given above and can be switched and changed to meet with the specific aims / objectives of any one particular lesson.
__adapted from Harmer, J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Malaysia: Longman.
adapted from Woodward, T. (2001). Planning Lesson and Courses: Designing Sequences of Work for the Language Classroom Cambridge: CUP, p.110-119.
Material also taken from the university reader for the seminars on Teaching English as a Foreign language, compiled by Fiona Hynes and me.
Aspects to be taken into consideration
Ausstattung eines/r Lehrers/Lehrerin
Arbeitsblätter / Worksheets
Will man das Tafelbild planen, empfiehlt es sich, für die herkömmlichen grünen Wandtafeln mit zwei Außenflügeln ein A4-Blatt zu nehmen und es wie die Tafel zu falten. Dann kann man gut sehen, was auf der Außenseite, wenn die Tafel geschlossen ist, geschrieben steht, was man auf die linke/rechte innere Tafel schreibt. Bei einer derartigen Planung sieht man, was im Laufe der Stunde verdeckt wird, wenn die Tafel aufgrund der Benutzung des OHPs geschlossen werden muss. Deswegen sollte man vielleicht dann auch nur den linken Teil der Tafel benutzen (also linker Flügel und linke Seite des Mittelteils), dann bleibt alles sichtbar, selbst wenn der rechte Tafelflügel geschlossen wird.
Planning a Unit